WordSmart Delivers in Fiji

WordSmart Delivers in Fiji

 The Informer recently featured a story “Did I Read That Right?” 5 July 2022) on WordSmart, a local initiative designed to help dyslexic and other children with learning difficulties, achieve better results in English literacy.

To recap, WordSmart.app is a hybrid reading programme aimed at beginner readers. The app provides the basis for students to become successful readers, by mimicking the ways our brains naturally leam to read, using stories.

At that time, company principal Paul Blackman and his partners were about to leave for Fiji, where the Government had committed to deploying the program in Fijian schools.

Fast forward a few weeks, and Paul is excited about the success of the project in Fiji. The excitement began on first arriving at the Delainamasi Government school, which was the first school to be selected by the Fijian Government for the project.

Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama, Prime Minister of the Republic of Fiji, has been a sponsor of the project, which aims to provide IT solutions that complement the schools’ existing programs. This School has been selected as the pilot school to provide a model for other schools wanting to provide digital solutions for all Fijian students, and every one of the school’s 103 new entrants has been issued with a tablet.

Paul’s first impressions of the School were overwhelmingly positive. “There are signs everywhere which provide inspiration, instruction and motivation for all the students,” he says. “The students are respectful, receptive and responsive and I’m really impressed by how fast they are learning to decode words to learn the basics of reading. I could teach here for the rest of my life. It’s so exciting to be teaching kids who truly want to learn.”

The WordSmart pilot is supported by Dhiraj Bhartu who heads up educational IT for the Ministry of Education and Prof. Som Naidu who was the Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University of the South Pacific. While in Fiji WordSmart has been invited to apply for a grant which would enable them to roll out the WordSmart app for the whole of Fiji and the Pacific region.  

Paul’s right hand man Blair Murray had taken on the role of providing the technical expertise to install the application on Samsung Tablets for all the 103 year one students. When he arrived it was clear he needed to be a “jack of all trades,” including sourcing portable internet Wi-Fi. Thanks to Blair the Delanamasi Govemment school is now able to provide all year one students with sufficient access to wifi to run all three classes. WordSmart has been able to utlilse the skills of a development team that includes Seba Illingworth, Eric Hogan and Stephen Knightly to overcome some quite complex
technical challenges. The team left the teachers with sufficient knowledge and skill to maintain the solution.

With WordSmart now will and truly established in the school, Paul is able to return to Whitianga, feeling a mixture of relief and excitement knowing the application has been left in safe hands.




New technology to address growing literacy gap in schools

New technology to address growing literacy gap in schools

A new piece of software for schools aims to address a growing literacy gap by identifying students – particularly in low socio-economic areas – who may have dyslexia.

New Zealand literacy company WordSmart – alongside Sweden company Lexplore – have created a literacy package to assist students struggling to read by targeting the area in the brain that they have difficulty with.

It uses a mix of teaching techniques and technology that traces a student’s eye movements and is being piloted in a number of schools including Ngāruawāhia High School.

Principal Chris Jarnet​ said it will have huge benefits to New Zealand schools that are under resourced to cater for the growing number of students with learning difficulties.

Dyslexia – one of the most common learning difficulties – has been officially recognised in New Zealand since 2007.

It’s believed at least one in seven students have dyslexia in New Zealand according to the Ministry of Education, but there’s no centralised data collection or standardised assessment or screening for it.

More parents since the Covid lockdowns have also reported learning difficulties such as dyslexia in their kids.

WordSmart marketing manager Blair Murray, left, and founder Paul Blackman.
WordSmart marketing manager Blair Murray, left, and founder Paul Blackman.

“They’ve got a real gift, but it’s just misunderstood.”

The technology – while not a replacement of a diagnosis – can identify a students’ literacy issues in around four minutes.

It follows the eye movements of a student in milliseconds while they undertake a number of tasks tailored to their age level, including reading and recall.

It picks up letters and words the student struggles with to generate a report – that only a teacher or principal can see – showing the level of literacy and what support could be given in class to see them improve.

Nervousness is also taken into consideration – with the developers recommending the test be done more than once by a teacher they feel comfortable with if needed.

Of the decile-two school’s 299 students, over half have some form of learning difficulty, he said.

While each school has learning support, teachers whose role is to cater for the neurodiversity of every student, it takes a lot of time and effort to support those struggling, he said.

“It’s a huge issue for us,” Jarnet said.

The software follows the eye movements of a student in milliseconds while they undertake a number of tasks tailored to their age level.The software follows the eye movements of a student in milliseconds while they undertake a number of tasks tailored to their age level.

“A lot of the students come in still on level one (the reading age of a five or six-year-old) and we are getting them to at least level six (the reading age of a 10 or 11-year-old) by Year 11, but my staff are working their butts off to do that.”

While other kids on the lower end of the spectrum may never get picked up, he said.

“We apply for funding all the time for those kids and without a whole lot of history it’s very difficult to get them the support.”

He said having technology such as the app in schools will save a lot of time and resourcing.



The app that’s ‘gamifying’ reading to help improve kids’ literacy

The app that’s ‘gamifying’ reading to help improve kids’ literacy

Children learn best when they’re having fun. Ben Fahy spoke to the founder of an app that’s helping kids break through learning barriers. 

On Paul Blackman’s first day of school in Grey Lynn in the 1950s – “before Grey Lynn was so flash” – he sat in a class with 54 other kids and the teacher gave them something to read. 

“My dad always read to me, so when I got to school I was able to read,” he says. 

He read the passage out to the teacher in front of the class, but “instead of saying well done, she went off her rocker, gave me the strap and said I was showing off,” Blackman recalls. 

“When you have an event like that at that age it goes straight into the subconscious and it made me believe I should never go beyond myself or show off.”

Blackman was able to regain his confidence over the years, but that early experience stuck with him and has formed the basis of his own approach to teaching. He knows the early years are so crucial to how people’s lives play out and this can either be a vicious or virtuous cycle because “learning and behaviour are always linked”.

“Kids who think they’re dumb are not motivated to try, but the better kids get at reading, the more confidence they gain. We need to give kids confidence early so they don’t know they’re any different. We have to change their mindset.”

And that’s exactly what the literacy app WordSmart aims to do. 




Paul Blackman has dedicated his career as a teacher to improving reading and writing (Photo: supplied).

Text appeal

In evolutionary terms, reading hasn’t been around for very long. Before the invention of writing – first in Mesopotamia around 3400 BC and then again independently in three other places in the centuries to come – we relied on oral storytelling to pass knowledge on. 

“Not only do you have to recognise the shape of the letters, you need to connect it to a sound and then articulate that with your mouth. It’s not a natural thing,” Blackman says. But it’s the thing he’s dedicated his life to improving as a teacher and the thing that took him on a five year journey to improve it further with the help of modern technology. 

Perhaps because of this oral storytelling tradition, our brains are wired for stories. The WordSmart app taps into our human passion for stories to help develop reading skills. Developed by Stephen Knightly, COO of video game studio Rocketwerkz, the app takes users on an interactive adventure with the characters Tama and Tracey and tells stories about how different letters got their sounds (for example, ‘A’ is all about apples and ants) and then it gives users activities where they have to match the shape of the letters to the corresponding sounds. 

“The kids love it. The biggest problem we have is getting them to stop using it.”

As Tracey tells users of the app, we learn best when we’re calm. Mindfulness techniques help the students to concentrate and overcome stressful situations. Many of the kids Blackman deals with who come from difficult circumstances are often in “fight, flight or freeze mode” and are right in the middle of that vicious cycle where deprivation and stress affect the ability to learn. WordSmart is designed to help break that cycle. 

An OECD report from 2016 called Low-Performing Students: Why They Fall Behind and How to Help Them Succeed, said “coming from a socio-economically disadvantaged family is the most obvious and perhaps strongest risk factor of low performance at school”. 

“When you’re upset or emotional at school because something’s going on at home, their brain goes out to lunch and nothing registers,” Blackman says.  

So, in addition to reading activities, WordSmart also offers kids ways to promote self-control or manage their emotions through things like breathing or tracing exercises. In a Covid-19 environment where the stress and disruption of lockdowns have been the background to all kids’ lives, WordSmart provides a tool to help students respond to these challenges, says Blackman.

Read it and weep 

While New Zealand is still in the top half of the OECD rankings for reading levels, our literacy stats have been trending down in recent years. There are a range of theories on why this might be the case, from a lack of focus on phonics to parents sitting in silence on their smartphones, but Blackman believes it is because we rely too much on the child-led Play Way approach in which play is “the valued mode of learning”. Blackman says it’s a question of balance, which is why Wordmart provides a structured approach where the games provide the scaffolding to achieve optimal learning outcomes. This is especially beneficial for children who don’t take to reading quickly. 

“My problem is that the kids who are dyslexic will just be behind from the start. What we need to do is get to them at an early stage and turn them around before they think they are any different.”

You can’t manage what you don’t measure, so screening for reading difficulties is crucial to addressing them. Blackman has established a partnership with a group of scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden who have developed a tool called Lexplore that does just that. The product of 30 years of research, it uses eye movements to glean insights into reading levels – the eyes of those with reading difficulties tending to move more slowly and linger on words for longer. Lexplore claims to be 97% accurate when it comes to picking up reading difficulties and the artificial intelligence engine behind it means the more people who participate, the better it gets. 

The partnership was an easy sell, says Blackman: “I just emailed them and said I’m working on this app called WordSmart. I got an email back from them saying ‘we think it’s really impressive, would you be interested in being a partner?’”

He is now working with Lexplore in New Zealand and across South East Asia and is looking at ways to integrate the test into the WordSmart app. The most important aspect of Lexplore is the way it measures fluency. Fluency in simple terms is the ability to read smoothly and quickly and at the same time using the punctuation clues to add meaning to the text. Fluency is the key to the comprehension of the text.

“Every school we’ve been in with Lexplore we’ve picked up kids who have fallen through the cracks,” he says. “So it’s a major benefit to New Zealand schools.”

Dyslexia translates to ‘difficulty with words’. And, to his point about the inextricable link between learning and behaviour, the Dyslexia Foundation estimates as many as 90% of those in our prisons are dyslexic, compared to 10% of the total population. 

Currently, diagnosing dyslexia requires an assessment by an educational psychologist that costs around $500. “But we have the ability to do an assessment with these kids in three minutes [with Lexplore]. It’s a huge cost saving.” 

It’s not just saving money, it’s changing lives. 

Look and learn 

Research suggests that exposing children to books at a young age and reading to them is more likely to create lifelong readers and lead to more organic learningIf children see their parents reading, they’re also more likely to view it as something to be enjoyed. But in less privileged communities, parents may not have as much time to spend reading at home and often rely more on teachers to guide their children’s learning. 

Blackman says WordSmart is aimed at all parents who want their children to become successful readers including those with young children who haven’t started school yet or those with children who are experiencing reading difficulties – and also teachers and Learning Support Coordinators. 

“We want to cater to all students, regardless of wealth, ability or neurodiversity,” he says. 

One major piece of the reading puzzle, especially for older children, is finding a topic they are interested in, as Blackman, who has a background as a guidance counsellor and careers advisor, knows all too well.

For him, being a guidance counsellor “wasn’t just about careers. It was about finding out what they’re passionate about.” 

Platforms like The Khan Academy or YouTube have allowed anyone with an internet connection to access education and choose to learn about what interests them. And when your child finds that, Blackman says, it’s important to give them the relevant material and let them go for it. Another programme that he has partnered with called Literacy for Boys embraces this principle by using topics like mountain biking, skateboarding, hunting and surfing to get kids hooked into the words, sounds and cool stories associated with these topics. 

“If a kid isn’t really stimulated and can’t find something they’re interested in to focus on, we lose a lot of them.”

Blackman has seen this play out firsthand many times while working as a teacher. He recounts a story from his time at a school in Mangakino, which held the record for the largest student population in New Zealand in 1954, during the construction of the dam at nearby Lake Maraetai. 

“It was unbelievably deprived. But having said that, if you can find something they are passionate about it can make a difference and, in that case, it was a play about a Māori legend called Hatupatu. For the kids who were in it, their attendance improved along with their motivation to learn.”


WordSmart is aimed at all parents who want their children to become successful readers (Photo: supplied)

What’s the story?

Blackman admits he’s impatient by nature, so he wants WordSmart (and Lexplore) to become an integral part of our education system and has ambitions to take it global. But, as the story of Barry Marshall and Robin Warren’s research into what causes ulcers shows, while science is designed to be a meritocracy, it’s often hard to break people out of their existing habits and beliefs, even when confronted with clear evidence.

“I’m staggered by how difficult it is to get schools to buy into it. Why? I just don’t get it. The technology is way in advance of anything I’ve ever seen. I have a really good knowledge of what’s around and what we can use [to improve reading ability]. And this leaves anything else I’ve seen for dead.”

Much to his delight, the scientists from the Karolinska Institute – which, by the way, is responsible for handing out the Nobel Prizes for Physiology and Medicine – agreed. The partnership has allowed WordSmart to start to reach children who might otherwise struggle with reading and Blackman is excited about the possibilities that represents for New Zealand’s children.  

“I want the maximum number of kids to benefit from this. It’s a cliche to say the education system is broken. But I think the greatest good we can do is to invest in education. I get the most out of helping kids achieve and I get real satisfaction from turning things around.”


Published in the Spinoff, October 19, 2021.


To help dyslexic pupils, go to the root of how children learn

To help dyslexic pupils, go to the root of how children learn

Dyslexia isn’t just about bad spelling – teachers need to try a variety of strategies to build confidence. I have this issue with how I hear words, Gareth, a 31-year-old graphic designer, tells me. “So for example, while I was growing up, it was really hard to tell the difference between the words ‘girl’ and ‘grill’ because the ‘ir’ and the ‘l’ kind of overlapped in time unless you spoke really slowly. My teachers were always just flabbergasted that I couldn’t tell.” To most of us, it seems obvious that the “ir” sound in “girl” comes before the “l”, but for Gareth, like many dyslexic sufferers, a dysfunction in the processing of neurological signals relative to each other in time, means that the letters tend to slip. This problem snowballs when it comes to learning to read. It’s vital to be able to hear the sounds of the words and associate them with a symbol before you can decode them on a page. But like all neurological disorders, dyslexia is not a static condition. The brain has an astonishing capacity to adapt and overcome hindrances which may be present in our neurobiology when we’re born – an ability referred to as neural plasticity. This process works through a combination of repetition and feedback, in other words, practising. It’s the same way a violinist gradually learns to find finger positions on the strings. System is skewed against dyslexics Through persistence, and repeatedly trying to hear the differences between words, Gareth says he’s overcome many of the problems he faced when younger. But he feels that the education system is skewed against dyslexics. “From my perspective, the big problem is that schools teach everything by telling. A teacher tells kids, ‘here’s how the world works, here’s how you solve this type of problem – now go and solve problems just like it’. But that impedes deep understanding. And it’s even worse for dyslexic kids who have problems with language.” Indeed, many researchers say that the biggest problem for dyslexic children is not so much their condition, but that the current system – with its emphasis on memorising facts and meeting fixed milestones at young ages – leads them to lose confidence and their willingness to try. It’s something the Mind Research Institute in California is looking to tackle by implementing a new system of learning for primary school children. This revolves round interactive puzzles and games, which ask probing questions, and crucially, are designed to engage the brain’s natural learning mechanisms. “This game-based format is a way of guiding them along a path, without having to rely on language,” says Matthew Peterson, a neuroscientist who founded the institute back in 1998. “And it works because, from a neuroscience perspective, you really need to learn by doing. You need to be put in situations where you have to figure things out, learn from your mistakes, and that’s not happening. The principle goes back to Socrates. He says, don’t tell people things, ask them questions and leave them to build their own knowledge.” Learning through doing connects the back lobes of our brain – involved in sensing the environment – to the cognitive, emotional, and memory networks in the frontal areas. This “perception-action cycle” is the driving force behind learning. And it depends on making mistakes, recognising them, and then adjusting. “The education system right now is just engaging the perception part of the cycle,” Peterson says. “Kids are listening and watching, there’s no action going on. “And for dyslexics, it’s pretty common to have working memory issues. Language adds an additional level of working memory which makes learning even more difficult. If you directly engage the perception-action cycle through activities, it has a tighter loop and requires less working memory. Not just a reading disorder For many years, dyslexia was viewed simply as a reading disorder, rather than a multi-faceted neurological condition that can combine auditory, visual and memory-based language difficulties. As a result, many of the programmes for dyslexic children were fixated on phonics and distinguishing between the smallest sounds (phonemes) that go to make up words. Phonics are one side of a very complex story. It’s become increasingly apparent that dyslexia can manifest as a range of symptoms. These overlap with other disorders such as dyspraxia and dysgraphia because many of the same brain areas are involved. “The phonics approach often leaves out the idea of semantics,” says Anna Pitt, a researcher at the Dyslexia Research Trust at Oxford University. “The more contextualized the concept or word the child is trying to remember or spell, the easier it is for them to learn, because they go by the understanding rather than the memory. And phonics only works for regular words. If you try to apply phonics to the word island, you’ll come out with is-land. To recognise irregular words when reading, you have to use your visual memory.” Dyslexia researchers say that very often the visual aspects of the condition are ignored. These are more subtle but can be seen in the problems many dyslexics have with differentiating between the letters “b” and “d”. It’s common for dyslexic children to complain that words appear to move as they try to read. The visual problems dyslexics suffer sometimes result from an inability to control the convergence of the tracking of their eyes. This is believed to be due to a malfunction in one of the brain’s visual pathways. Some of these children can be helped by using coloured glasses or paper in the classroom to give them a more reliable representation of what’s on the page. A new programme has recently launched to help dyslexics learn to control their visual attention through classroom-based exercises involving body and eye movement. It’s based on the theory of embodied cognition, which suggests that improving motor control throughout the body can improve attention and problem solving ability. “We’re learning that tackling the attention side of things is often getting to the root of the problem far more effectively than just working on spelling,” Pitt says. “You have to be prepared to let children find a way which works for them. If you look at dyslexics like Einstein or Richard Branson, their condition forced them to challenge the norm and find a new way of doing things. Sometimes this results in a solution which is better than the regular one, leading to fantastic new ideas which is how society develops.” By David Cox, originally published in the Guardian / Mon 22 Sep 2014 14.35 BST — https://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/sep/22/teaching-pupils-with
Beautiful minds: uncovering the hidden talents in neurodiversity

Beautiful minds: uncovering the hidden talents in neurodiversity

Words by Saba Salman February 17, 2020 Body & MindSociety


Rather than simply accepting people with neurodiverse conditions like autism or dyslexia, what if we recognised their hidden talents? Four neurodiverse people explain how the way their brains work has been key to their success

Alice Hewson
Condition: Dyspraxia
Superpower: Empathy

Alice Hewson says her dyspraxia gives her a strong sense of empathy. Image: Owen Richards for Positive News

“Growing up, I knew I wasn’t like the other children but I didn’t know why,” says Alice Hewson. The youth worker and journalist, 30, was late to hit developmental milestones like walking. She was at primary school in Newcastle when she was diagnosed with dyspraxia, which can affect coordination, organisational skills, memory and speech.

At school Hewson was picked on because she struggled with everything from sports to doing up her coat. There was physical bullying: “It was things like pushing me over in the corridor. Because I didn’t have good balance and was easy to knock over, I’d get trampled on.” Hewson, who developed anxiety in her teens, says her dyspraxia means she has a powerful ability to empathise and a strong sense of justice: “I’ve encountered difficulties that other people don’t have to deal with, and that’s made me incredibly caring. I can put myself in someone else’s situation. I respond in a very different way to people who aren’t neurodiverse.”“If you’re suffering from news exhaustion, Positive News magazine will be so good for your mental health.”– Claudia M. via TwitterSubscribe to Positive News magazine

While working at a youth project, for instance, Hewson noticed a boy refusing to join in a game. She spotted his poor hand-eye coordination and that he seemed overwhelmed (autistic people often experience sensory overload). So she spent time reassuring him: “I recognised he was different to the other kids. I could see he was on the verge of being upset.”

In her teens, Hewson launched an environmental group at school after becoming frustrated at playground littering. She was also a member of Gateshead Youth Assembly, a group representing the views of local young people, and is now a trustee of the Dyspraxia Foundation. “I’ve always had this awareness of societal issues and wanting to change the world. I need to stand up for things I believe in,” she says.

Tamara Thomas
Condition: Dyslexia
Superpower: Determination

Tamara Thomas says her dyslexia has made her more determined. Image: Sam Bush for Positive News

My single-mindedness comes from the challenges I had at school,” says Tamara Thomas, a project nurse lead at Barts Health NHS Trust. Although Thomas, 29, was diagnosed with dyslexia at university, she always had help with reading and writing at school in her native Swansea, Wales.

“I’d try not to ask for help because I didn’t want be different and I found coping strategies. If I had to read aloud, I’d go over and over the text before, and my parents would help me prepare my work,” she says. Secondary school teachers predicted Thomas would only pass one GCSE – a ‘C’ in maths. “It was devastating to be written off, but I wanted to prove them wrong,” she continues. “I picked subjects I enjoyed, like drama and healthcare studies and left with eight GCSEs.”

The negative perceptions have pushed me to be where I am today

After a BTEC in healthcare, Thomas did a degree, a postgraduate diploma and a master’s in nursing. “It appealed to me because it’s an active, hands-on career and I love dealing with people. I was diagnosed after my university tutors suspected I was dyslexic; I had adjustments like dictation software and extra time in exams.”

Of her dyslexia, Thomas explains that she sees words differently to most people. “Sometimes letters join up, look blurred or are in the wrong order. I know what I want to write, but I don’t know how to write it.

“People assume that if you have dyslexia you’re not bright, like the friend who said, ‘You can’t be dyslexic if you’ve got a master’s’.”

Without dyslexia, Thomas doubts she would be as driven: “The negative perceptions have pushed me to be where I am today and my next ambition is to do a PhD.”

Dean Rodney
Condition: Autism
Superpower: Creativity

Musician Dean Rodney has autism and is highly creative. Image: Heart n Soul

“Greta Thunberg called her autism a superpower because it means she thinks differently,” says singer Dean Rodney, 30, from London. “I see my autism as a superpower. I describe things differently and think of things differently. I think I’m a super creative person.”

Rodney, who performs and releases music through creative arts charity Heart n Soul, says: “My first memories of music were when I was three years old. I would listen to my mum and dad’s CDs – 70s and 80s music and a mix of styles.” Rodney developed his musical talent as a child, after performing in front of his school. He started rapping when he was 12 and joined a Heart n Soul youth project the following year.

Greta Thunberg called her autism a super-power

Among his biggest musical influences are French electro duo Daft Punk, Art of Noise and Paul Hardcastle – “especially the track The Wizard, the theme title of TV show Top of the Pops”. He counts his collaborations with other artists, such as the band Ravioli Me Away, among his greatest achievements.

Although he finds it difficult to travel independently (“there’s a lot going on around you”), Rodney says he finds it easy to remember song lyrics, as well as to write songs and stories.

There are other benefits to his autism, too. “You see the world from a different perspective,” he says. The inspiration for his 2012 musical project, the Dean Rodney Singers, came in a dream. “It featured 72 musicians from seven countries producing music, art, dance and videos. It all started with a dream. In the dream I went to see a band perform. I asked them, ‘What is the name of your band?’ They said, ‘DRS’. I asked, ‘What does that stand for?’ They said, ‘We don’t know’. I said, ‘How about the Dean Rodney Singers?’ And it got made into this amazing project.”

Rodney has a message for anyone who thinks autistic people are only good with numbers: “We can do everything!”

Nancy Doyle
Condition: ADHD
Superpower: Hyper alert

Psychologist Nancy Doyle says her ADHD makes her very alert. Image: Genius Within

“As a society, we have decided that people need to sit still for eight hours a day,” says Nancy Doyle, 43, a psychologist from Lewes in East Sussex. The world needs people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) like her, she argues. “I’m hyper alert and energetic. I react quickly, I think quickly. And in terms of a human species, not sitting down makes sense. We [people with ADHD] are the alert ones, we’re the ones who are up, awake late at night, the first to respond.”

These traits, says Doyle, also mean that if you have ADHD, you can be “absolutely brilliant in a crisis and very entrepreneurial”.

As well as working as a psychologist, Doyle runs social enterprise Genius Within, which helps people with neurodiversity into work. She was diagnosed in her mid-30s: “My work triggered the diagnosis – I was diagnosing people with these conditions and thinking ‘this is me’.”

People with ADHD are the alert ones, we’re the ones who are up, awake late at night, the first to respond

As a “tearaway teen”, her adolescence included periods of anxiety and depression. Doyle was bright, but disliked the constraints of school (“I felt like a caged animal”) and only felt settled once she was 18 and “the executive functions kicked in”. She moved into psychology after working in care for people with severe disabilities and mental health needs, noting the inadequacy of the existing psychological support.

She says of her ADHD: “I’m erratic. I don’t follow rules. I’m more driven by quick judgement. I have peaks and troughs in energy.” Her visual spacing and reasoning skills are high, but her concentration and memory are “average”.

“It’s like I’m doing 100 miles per hour down the highway and the brakes fall off when I hit a corner – I have to think carefully how I can apply the brakes.” And what does society miss out on by ignoring neurodiverse people, like individuals with ADHD? “We’re missing out on people’s ingenuity.”

Featured image: Alice Hewson, credit: Owen Richards for Positive News